Selected category ◊ Affinity between languages ◊

• Wednesday, July 06th, 2016

“It is absolutely unrealistic that Basque was a nonIndo-European language which borrowed over 70% of its basic lexicon (including virtually all verbs) and most of its archaic bound morphemes from neighboring IndoEuropean languages.

The most likely explanation of regular correspondences between Basque and PIE lexicon and grammar is that Basque is Indo-European. Which IndoEuropean branch Basque is closer to is a topic for further studies, but I would not be surprised if it turned out to be close to (Italo-)Celtic.”


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• Monday, January 04th, 2016

For what they were… we are: Basque-Nubian:

This is something I’ve been chewing on for more than a year now and yet never got myself to blog about (although I have mentioned in private or in comments here and there). Impelled by the minor but quite apparent NE African influence, genetic and cultural, on the Neolithic peoples of the Levant, whose offshoots eventually landed in Greece triggering the European Neolithic, I decided in the Spring of 2014 to explore, via mass-lexical comparison, if Basque language (and by extension the wider Vasconic family, which I believe now to be that of mainline European Neolithic) might have any relation with Nubian languages. I did not expect to find anything but noise but to my surprise the number of apparent cognates is quite significant.
My primary analysis was this one but now I have combined it with a comparison with Proto-Indoeuropean (PIE), which is also very probably related to the roots of Vasconic: LINK (open office spreadsheet).
The synthesis is as follows:

  • Basque – Nubian languages (English)
  • azal – àzì, àzzì-di (bark)
  • haragi – árízh (meat)
  • odol – ógór, èggér (blood)
  • buru – úr (head)
  • oin – ó:y (foot)
  • esku – ish-i, ès-sì (hand)
  • hil* – di-ìl (to die)
  • euri – are, ara, áwwí, áré, árí, áró (rain)
  • harri – kugor, kakar (stone) [notice also the pre-IE root *kharr- speculated to be at the origin of Karst, etc.]
  • lur – gùr (soil, ground)
  • haize – irsh-i, éss-í (wind)
  • Nubian (English) – Basque (English)
  • hor, koy, kà:r (tree) – harri (stone) [notice that zuhaitz (tree) can be interpreted etymologically as zur-haitz = wood-rock, so the relation is not that weird]
  • ok-i, og (breast) – ogi (bread)
  • a-l (heart) – ahal (can (verb), potential, power)
  • azh, àz-ír, àzza (to bite) – (h)ortz (tooth), aitz (rock, peak) [some argue that originally "to cut", present in many cutting tool names: aizkor = axe, aitzur = hoe, aizto = knife, etc.*]
  • shu, zhúù (to walk) – joan (to go) [often pronounced jun or shun]
  • é:zhi (water) – heze (wet) [also archaic particle *iz-, meaning "water" by all accounts: itxaso = sea, izurde = dolphin, izotz = ice, and common in Vasconic river toponymy]
  • zhuge (to burn) – su (fire)
  • zhùg, sù, sú:w (hot) – su (fire)
  • úr-i, úrúm (black) – urdin (blue) [archaic also green, grey]

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• Saturday, April 27th, 2019

Mari C. Iribarren: Vocablos de tipología vasca en el italo-romance

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